Substations are where electricity lines are connected and switched and where the voltage is changed by transformers. They range from the very large to the very small – see below for a guide. But in nearly all cases, the highest field is usually produced by the lines and cables supplying the substation and not by the equipment inside the substation itself. If the substation itself produces a field outside its perimeter, it usually falls away over the first few metres

They connect different parts of a grid and are a source for subtransmission lines or distribution lines. The step-down substation can change the transmission voltage to a subtransmission voltage, usually 69 kV. The subtransmission voltage lines can then serve as a source to distribution substations. Sometimes, power is tapped from the subtransmission line for use in an industrial facility along the way. Otherwise, the power goes to a distribution substation.